Carla Peck

Carla Peck

Carla Peck is Associate Professor of Social Studies Education in the Department of Elementary Education at the University of Alberta. Before moving west, Carla taught grades 1 – 8 in rural New Brunswick. She is currently directing the Alberta portion of the pan-Canadian history education reform project, “The Historical Thinking Project”. Her research interests include students’ understandings of democratic concepts, diversity, identity, citizenship and the relationship between students’ ethnic identities and their understandings of history. She has published articles on citizenship education and history education in the Canadian Journal of Education, Canadian Social Studies, and Citizenship Teaching and Learning, as well as in the pre-service teacher education book Challenges and Prospects for Canadian Social Studies (Pacific Educational Press, 2004).

What is a Benchmark?

<p>John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising &amp; Marketing History,<br />Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections</p>

A surveyor cut a "benchmark" into a stone or a wall when measuring the altitude and/or level of a tract of land. A bracket called a "bench" was secured in the cut to mount the surveying equipment, and all subsequent measurements were made in reference to the position and height of that mark.

The term "benchmark" was first used around 1842 to refer to a standard of quality by which achievement may be measured.

The foundation documents available through the Benchmarks site attempt to help teachers establish standards for assessing student learning of the modes of thought that constitute historical thinking.

John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History,
Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections