Penney Clark

Penney Clark

Penney Clark is Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia and Director, The History Education Network/Histoire et education en réseau (THEN/HiER) (funded by a $2.1 million Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada Strategic Clusters Grant). Her research interests include history teaching and learning and curriculum in historical and political contexts. Her publications include articles in the Canadian Journal of Education, the American Journal of Education, the McGill Journal of Education, Theory and Research in Social Education, History of Education (UK) and Historical Studies in Education. She was a contributor to the History of the Book in Canada project, volumes Two and Three. She is currently conducting research on textbook production and provision in Canada, funded by a SSRC Standard Research Grant. She was also the 2006 recipient of the Marie Tremaine Fellowship from the Bibliographical Society of Canada. She is a member of the Editorial Board for the American Educational Research Journal.

Dr. Clark was awarded the Killam Faculty Teaching Prize in 2006. She received the BC Social Studies Teachers’ Association Innovator of the Year Award in 2008. She is co-editor, with Roland Case, of two volumes published in 2008: Anthology of Social Studies: Issues and Strategies for Elementary Teachers and Secondary Teachers.

For a list of publications and additional information, see:

What is a Benchmark?

<p>John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising &amp; Marketing History,<br />Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections</p>

A surveyor cut a "benchmark" into a stone or a wall when measuring the altitude and/or level of a tract of land. A bracket called a "bench" was secured in the cut to mount the surveying equipment, and all subsequent measurements were made in reference to the position and height of that mark.

The term "benchmark" was first used around 1842 to refer to a standard of quality by which achievement may be measured.

The foundation documents available through the Benchmarks site attempt to help teachers establish standards for assessing student learning of the modes of thought that constitute historical thinking.

John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History,
Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections